Electric Mobility

Electric mobility is capturing attention globally and leveraging this wave will bring multiple environmental and economic gains for India.

Electric mobility is often considered as a mere change in fuel source within existing transportation systems. Yet, the opportunity is far greater, provided barriers to mass electric vehicle adoption (e.g. capital cost, vehicle range and access to charging infrastructure) are actively resolved. In addition, the intrinsic connections between electric transportation and the energy sector offer unique opportunities to leverage the ongoing clean energy transition in India.

Making the move to electric mobility will require a carefully planned strategy that envisions the merging of the transportation and energy sectors and re-envisions relationships between people and vehicles. It will need an ecosystem approach that is comprehensive and relevant to the local context, with policymakers, regulators and other stakeholders clearly identifying the technologies and approaches that best fit the Indian scenario that is unique and stands apart from other nations -

  • 70% of India’s vehicles consist of motorized two-wheelers.
  • Average trip lengths are small as compared to trips undertaken in developed countries.
  • Ambient temperatures are usually high.
  • Driving speeds in urban areas are low as compared to speeds in developed nations.
  • The Indian consumer is very cost conscious.

Tracking India’s industrial evolution using a four-dimensional framework of competitiveness. View our paper here. Photo by Ather Energy

EV TCO Evaluator


WRI India’s Electric Mobility Program is pursuing three lines of work that form the basis of our policy work with decision makers in state and central government, industry, and academia -

  • Tracking industrial evolution through a ‘Competitiveness’ framework: Our new paper tracks the strategic moves of firms – in particular how they are expanding and diversifying to gain a competitive advantage.
  • Helping create a robust and resilient EV value chain: Our market sizing exercise estimates the potential growth across various upstream and downstream segments in the EV ecosystem - i.e value chain, charging infrastructure and batteries.
  • Fostering an appropriately-skilled and inclusive ‘Human Capital’: We are studying new employment opportunities as well as jobs that are becoming obsolete to enable states to create a viable talent pool and ensure a just transition in the labor market.
EV TCO Evaluator


Access our TCO EValuator that allows you to compare and contrast the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of electric two-wheelers, three-wheelers, cars and buses, as well as light commercial freight vehicles (LCFV), medium commercial freight vehicles (MCFV) and heavy commercial freight vehicles (HCFV) against their internal combustion engine (ICE) counterparts.

  • The TCO EValuator takes into account the various cost components and usage details of a vehicle during the period of utilization and provides you with a TCO/ km for acquiring and using the vehicle.
  • You can input capital and operations costs in the sheet (in various currencies and measurement systems) to determine the effect of various components on the TCO of a vehicle.

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Electric Vehicle TCO


Access our Route EValuator that allows you to gauge the merit for deployment of e-buses on specific routes and develop corresponding implementation plans. The EValuator sheds light on key techno-economic aspects that are important for the decision-making and preparedness of the transit agencies, to ensure that a route’s electrification neither disrupts the quality of the existing bus service nor becomes financially burdensome.​

  • Technical feasibility and financial sustainability of electrifying a route​

  • For a route on which e-bus deployment is technically feasible, the evaluator explicates the required specifications of e-buses, the suitable charging strategy, area for setting up infrastructure, power supply requirements, etc.​

  • In case electrification of a route is not found to be technically feasible in the present context, the evaluator suggests certain requirements that can potentially enable e-bus deployment on the route

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WRI India Ross Center adopts a four-pronged strategy to advance the electric mobility agenda in India -

  • Learning and knowledge dissemination across the entire ecosystem discussing issues of technology transition, business models and global best practices distilled with local insights.
  • Informing policy discussions at the national and state-level.

  • Provide hand-holding support to 6 states & cities on EV policy planning, development and implementation.

  • Supporting cities to adopt electric buses as part of their public transport fleet.